Antibiotics, also called antibacterial agents are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics either kill bacteria (bactericidal action) or stop them from growing and multiplying (bacteriostatic action).
The majority of antibiotics are broad-spectrum in nature i.e., they are used to treat a wide range of infections caused by gram-positive and/or gram-negative organisms while some antibiotics are narrow-spectrum i.e., they are used to treat only specific infections caused by particular bacteria.
Antibiotics are grouped into classes based on their chemical structure. Antibiotics are classified as: Aminoglycosides (such as amikacin, tobramycin); Carbapenems (such as meropenem); Cephalosporins (such as cefixime, ceftriaxone); Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin); Glycopeptides and lipoglycopeptides (such as vancomycin); Macrolides (such as azithromycin, roxithromycin); Monobactams (such as aztreonam), Oxazolidinones (such as linezolid and tedizolid); Penicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin); Polypeptides (bacitracin, colistin, polymyxin B); Phosphonic acid antibiotic (Fosfomycin ); Rifamycins (rifampin, rifaximin); Sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole); Streptogramins (such as quinupristin and dalfopristin); Tetracyclines (doxycycline, tetracycline); Miscellaneous (chloramphenicol, clindamycin, daptomycin, lefamulin, metronidazole, mupirocin, nitrofurantoin, and tigecycline).
Combinations of antibiotics are also needed to treat:
Corticosteroids are drugs used to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. Steroids reduce redness and swelling (inflammation) associated with inflammatory conditions such as asthma and eczema (atopic dermatitis – red and itching skin). Steroids also reduce the activity of the immune system, which is the body's natural defence against illness and infection. Thus, steroids help in treating autoimmune conditions (immune system mistakenly attacking own body cells) such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus (inflammatory condition that can affect the joints, skin, kidneys, brain, heart, and lungs).
Corticosteroids (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate; Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate; Methylprednisolone sodium succinate ) are anti-inflammatory medicines useful in treating a range of conditions such as:
Fever is an elevated body temperature i.e., higher than 100.4° F (38° C) as measured by an oral thermometer. Infection is the most common cause of fever. Fever may also result from inflammation, a reaction to a drug, an allergic reaction, autoimmune disorders (when the body produces abnormal antibodies that attack its own tissues), and undetected cancer (especially leukemia, lymphoma, or kidney cancer).
Extreme temperature elevation (typically more than 105.8° F, or 41° C) as a result of very severe infection (such as sepsis, malaria, or meningitis) may be damaging and can cause malfunction and ultimately failure of most organs.
Antipyretics are drugs used to lower body temperature in fever (pyrexia). The most effective and widely used antipyretic available is paracetamol (also called as acetaminophen). Paracetamol possesses both antipyretic and analgesic effects. Paracetamol infusion is indicated for the short-term treatment of moderate pain, especially following surgery (post-operative pain), and for the treatment of fever.
Anticoagulant drugs are widely used for the prevention and treatment of venous and/or arterial thrombosis (blood clotting). Anticoagulants comprise a chemically heterogeneous group of drugs acting at different steps within the coagulation cascade.
Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin class of anticoagulant medication. It works by stopping the formation of substances that cause clots. Enoxaparin is used to prevent blood clots in the leg in patients who are on bedrest or who are having hip replacement, knee replacement, or stomach surgery. It is used in combination with aspirin to prevent complications from angina (chest pain) and heart attacks. It is also used in combination with warfarin to treat blood clots in the leg.
Antiulcer agents are used for both prevention and treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease as well as to reduce hyperacidity, acid reflux, esophagitis, and upper intestinal discomforts. Most of these agents act by inhibition of gastric acid production, neutralization of acid, or protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa from acid injury.
The commonly used antiulcer agents are antacids (such as aluminium or magnesium hydroxide, calcium carbonate), histamine type 2 receptor blockers (H2 blockers such as famotidine, ranitidine) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs such as pantoprazole, rabeprazole).
Among these agents, PPIs are the most potent and effective antiulcer medications. PPIs block the pathways of acid production by inhibiting proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase). PPIs such as pantoprazole decreases gastric acidity thereby improves symptoms and helps in healing of acid-peptic diseases. PPIs are also useful as co-therapy with agents that causes damage to gastric mucosa i.e., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or the drugs that increases gastric acidity such as antibiotics. PPIs are generally safe and well tolerated.